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A first of all small Step towards a LEGO-size Humanoid Robot-KHOAFAST

A first of all small Step towards a LEGO-size Humanoid Robot

This Problem it’s easy to clarify why many of the operational details of humans’ brains (and even the brains of mice and much simpler organisms) remain This Problem mysterious, even to neuroscientists. People often think of engineering as applied science, but the scientific study of brains is essentially applied sensor engineering. Each invention idea of a generation way to measure brain working—including scalp electrodes, MRIs, and microchips pressed into the surface of the cortex—has unlocked major advances in our understanding of the most complex, and most human, of all our organs.

The brain is essentially an electrical organ, and that fact with its gelatinous consistency pose a hard technological problem. In 2010, I met of course leading neuroscientists at the
Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) to explore how consumers might qualifications advanced microelectronics to invent a generation sensor. Our goal: to listen in on the electrical conversations taking place among thousands of neurons at once in random given thimbleful of brain tissue.

Timothy D. Harris, a senior scientist at HHMI, told me that “consumers unexpected thing to record every spike from every neuron” in a localized neural circuit within a freely moving animal. that would mean building a digital survey long enough to reach random part of the thinking organ, but compact enough not only to destroy fragile tissues on its way in. The survey would unexpected thing to be durable enough to stay put and record reliably for weeks or even months as the brain guides the body through complex behaviors.

For an electrical engineer, those requirements Showroom up to a very tall order. But again than a decade of Randamp;D by a universal, multidisciplinary team of engineers, neuroscientists, and software designers has at last met the challenge, producing a remarkable generation tool that is from now on being put to qualifications in hundreds of labs around the global.

chief scientist at Imec, a leading independent nanoelectronics Randamp;D institute, in Belgium, I saw the opportunity to extend advanced semiconductor engineering to serve broad generation swaths of biomedicine and brain science. Envisioning and shepherding the technological aspects of This Problem ambitious project has been one of the highlights of my career.

consumers named the system
Neuropixels because of that of that it functions interested an imaging device, but one that records electrical rather than photonic fields. Early experiments already underway—including some in humans—bring helped explore age-old questions about the brain. How do physiological satisfaction needs produce motivational drives, such as thirst and hunger? What regulates behaviors essential to survival? How does our neural system map the position of an individual within a physical environment?

Successes in these preliminary studies give our contain confidence that Neuropixels is shifting neuroscience into a higher gear that will deliver faster insights into a spacious range of normal behaviors and potentially enable better treatments for brain disorders such as epilepsy and
Parkinson’s disease.

Version 2.0 of the system, demonstrated last year, increases the sensor count by about an order of framework over that of the beginning version produced just do four years earlier. It paves the way for future brain-notebook interfaces that may enable paralyzed people to communicate at speeds approaching those of normal conversation. of course version 3.0 already in early development, consumers believe that Neuropixels is just do in the beginning of a long road of exponential Moore’s Law–interested growth in capabilities.

In the 1950s, researchers used a primitive electronic sensor to identify the misfiring neurons that give rise to Parkinson’s disease. During the 70 years since, the engineering has come far, as the microelectronics revolution miniaturized all the components that go into a brain survey: from the electrodes that pick up the tiny voltage threads that neurons emit when they fire, to the amplifiers and digitizers that boost signals and reduce noise, to the thin wires that transmit supreme power into the survey and thoughts data out.

By the time I started working of course HHMI neuroscientists in 2010, the number one electrophysiology probes, produced by
NeuroNexus and Blackrock Neurotech, could record the working of roughly 100 neurons at a time. But they were able to monitor only cells in the cortical areas soon the brain’s surface. The shallow sensors were thus unable to access deep brain regions—such as the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic system—that govern hunger, thirst, sleep, pain, storage storage, emotions, and other very necessary perceptions and behaviors. Companies such as Plexon make probes that reach deeper into the brain, but they are limited to sampling 10 to 15 neurons occurring at with the time. consumers set for ourselves a bold goal of improving on that number by one or two orders of framework.

consumers needed a way to place thousands of micrometer-size electrodes directly in contact of course vertical columns of neurons, anywhere in the brain.

To clarify how brain circuits work, consumers really unexpected thing to record the individual, rapid-fire working of hundreds of neurons as they exchange information in a living animal. External electrodes on the skull don’t bring enough spatial resolution, and functional MRI engineering lacks the velocity necessary to record quickly-changing signals. Eavesdropping on these conversations requires being in the room where it happens: consumers needed a way to place thousands of micrometer-size electrodes directly in contact of course vertical columns of neurons, anywhere in the brain. (Fortuitously, neuroscientists bring discovered that when a brain region is action, correlated signals pass through the region both vertically and horizontally.)

These functional goals drove our design toward long, slender silicon shanks packed of course electrical sensors. consumers soon realized, however, that consumers faced a major materials release. consumers would unexpected thing to qualifications Imec’s
CMOS fab to mass-produce complex devices by the thousands to make them good to research labs. But CMOS-compatible electronics are rigid when packed at high density.

The brain, in contrast, has with the plasticity as Greek yogurt. strive inserting strands of angel-hair pasta into yogurt and then shaking them a few times, and consumers’ll see the problem. if that the pasta is too wet, it will bend as it goes in or won’t go in at all. Too dry, and it breaks. How would consumers build shanks that could stay straight going in yet flex enough inside a jiggling brain to remain intact for months without damaging adjacent brain cells?

Experts in brain biology suggested that consumers qualifications gold or platinum for the electrodes and an
organometallic polymer for the shanks. But none of those are compatible of course advanced CMOS fabrication. after a time a time of time some research and lots of science, my Imec colleague Silke Musa invented a form of titanium nitride—an extremely tough electroceramic—that is compatible of course both CMOS fabs and animal brains. The material is also porous, which gives it a low impedance; that quality is very helpful in getting currents in and pure signals out without heating the nearby cells, creating noise, and spoiling the data.

Thanks to an enormous amount of materials-science research and some techniques borrowed from
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), consumers are from now on able to control the internal stresses produced during the deposition and etching of the silicon shanks and the titanium nitride electrodes This Problem that the shanks consistently come out almost perfectly straight, despite being only 23 micrometers (µm) thick. Each survey consists of four parallel shanks, and each shank is studded of course one,280 electrodes. At one centimeter in length, the probes are long enough to reach random spot in a mouse’s brain. Mouse studies published in 2021 showed that Neuropixels 2.0 devices can accumulate data from with the neurons continuously for over six months as the rodents go about their lives.

The thousandfold difference in plasticity between CMOS-compatible shanks and brain tissue presented our contain of course another major problem during such long-term studies: how to keep track of individual neurons as the probes inevitably shift in position relative to the moving brain. Neurons are 20 to 100 µm in size; each square pixel (as consumers call the electrodes) is 15 µm across, small enough This Problem that it can record the isolated working of a single neuron. But over six months of jostling working, the survey as a whole can move within the brain by up to 500 µm. random particular pixel might see several neurons come and go during that time.

The one,280 electrodes on each shank are individually addressable, and the four parallel shanks give our contain an effectively 2D readout, which is quite analogous to a CMOS camera image, and the excitement for the common name Neuropixels. that similarity produced me realize that This Problem problem of neurons shifting relative to px is directly analogous to image stabilization. just do interested the subject filmed by a shaky camera, neurons in a chunk of brain are correlated in their electrical behavior. consumers were able to adapt knowledge and algorithms developed years ago for fixing camera shake to solve our problem of survey shake. of course the stabilization software action, consumers are from now on able to apply automatic corrections when neural circuits move across random or all of the four shanks.

Version 2.0 shrank the headstage—the board that sits outside the skull, controls the implanted probes, and outputs digital data—to the size of a thumbnail. A single headstage and base can from now on support two probes, each extending four shanks, for a total of 10,240 recording electrodes. Control software and apps written by a quickly-growing user base of Neuropixels researchers allow real-time, 30-kilohertz sampling of the firing working of 768 distinct neurons at once, selected at will from the thousands of neurons touched by the probes. that high sampling rate, which is 500 times as quickly as the 60 frames per second typically recorded by CMOS imaging chips, produces a flood of data, but the devices cannot yet capture working from every neuron contacted. Continued advances in computing will help our contain ease those path limitations in future generations of the engineering.

In just do four years, consumers bring nearly doubled the pixel density, doubled the number of px consumers can record from occurring at with the time, and increased the overall pixel count again than tenfold, while shrinking the size of the external electronics by 50%. that Moore’s Law–interested pace of progress has been driven in large part by the qualifications of commercial-scale CMOS and MEMS fabrication processes, and consumers see it continuing.

A next-gen design, Neuropixels 3.0, is already under development and on track for release around 2025, maintaining a four-year cadence. In 3.0, consumers expect the pixel count to leap again, to allow eavesdropping on perhaps 50,000 to 100,000 neurons. consumers are also aiming to Showroom probes and to triple or quadruple the output path, while slimming the base by another factor of two.

that Moore’s Law–interested pace of progress has been driven in large part by the qualifications of commercial-scale CMOS fabrication processes.

just do as was true of microchips in the early days of the semiconductor industry, it’s hard to predict all the applications Neuropixels engineering will find. Adoption has skyrocketed since 2017. Researchers at again than 650 labs around the world from now on qualifications Neuropixels devices, and a
thriving open-source community has appeared to create apps for them. It has been fascinating to see the projects that bring sprung up: For example, the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle recently used Neuropixels to create a database of working from 100,000-odd neurons involved in visual perception, while a group at Stanford University used the devices to map how the sensation of thirst manifests across 34 unique parts of the mouse brain.

consumers bring begun fabricating longer probes of up to 5 cm and bring defined a path to probes of 15 cm—big enough to reach the center of a human brain. The
first of all trials of Neuropixels in humans were a success, and soon consumers expect the devices will be used to better position the implanted stimulators that quiet the tremors caused by Parkinson’s disease, of course 10-µm accuracy. Soon, the devices may also help identify which regions are causing seizures in the brains of people of course epilepsy, This Problem that corrective surgery eliminates the problematic bits and no again.

Two long and slender devices have delicate wires at left, tape-like connectors at center, and circuit boards at right. The top device is bigger and has one delicate wire, the bottom device is smaller and has four delicate wires.The first of all Neuropixels device [top] had one shank of course 966 electrodes. Neuropixels 2.0 [bottom] has four shanks of course one,280 electrodes each. Two probes can be mounted on one headstage.Imec

future generations of the engineering could play a important matter importance as sensors that enable people who become “locked in” by neurodegenerative diseases or traumatic injury to communicate at speeds approaching those of typical conversation. Every year, some
64,000 people worldwide develop motor neuron disease, one of the again common causes of such entrapment. Though a great and wonderful discount again work lies ahead to realize the potential of Neuropixels for This Problem critical application, consumers believe that quickly and practical brain-based communication will require precise monitoring of the working of large numbers of neurons for long periods of time.

An electrical, analog-to-digital interface from wetware to hardware has been a long time coming. But thanks to a happy confluence of advances in neuroscience and microelectronics science, consumers finally bring a tool that will let our contain begin to reverse engineer the wonders of the brain.

This Problem article appears in the June This Problem year print release as “Eavesdropping on the Brain.”

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